ADJECTIVES WITH -ED AND -ING
There are many different adjectives which can be formed with –ed or –ing.
Adjectives with –ed express how the person feels about something:
She was terrified as Dracula approached her.
Adjectives with –ing are used to describe the person or thing which produces the feeling:
There is a surprising article in today’s newspaper. (i felt surprised when I read it).
Common adjectives like this include:
Comparative and superlative adjectives
We use a comparative adjective to compare two people or things and to say that one thing has more (or less) of a quality (size, height, etc.) Than the other:
- A blue whale is heaveir than an elephant.
- Mount everest is higher than k2.
We use a superlative adjective to compare one person or one thing with all those in the same group and to say that this thing has the most (or the least) of a quality.
- There are many high mountains but Mount Everest is the highest.
|We add –er to one-syllable adjectives||We add –est to one-syllable adjectives|
|E.g. Deep, high, tall.The pacific ocean is deeper than the atlantic.||The giraffe is the tallest animal in the world.|
|We add –er to two-syllable adjectives ending in –y or- ly, Ending in –y or- ly,||We add est to two-syllable adjectives ending in –y or-ly.|
|e.g. Noisy, friendly.My brother is friendlier than me.||The blue whale is the heaviest animal in the world.|
|We use more to form the comparative of most other two-syllable adjectives.||We use most to form the superlative of two-syllable adjectives:|
|Gold is more expensive than silver.||The mosquito is the most dangerous creature.|
|After the adjective we usually put than.||Before the adjective we usually put the.|
|The adjectives good, bad and far form irregular comparisons. good -better; bad – worse; far – further.||The adjectives good, bad and far form iregular superlatives. better – the best; worse – the worst; further – the furthest.|
|We can sometimes use less instead of more:||We can sometimes use least instead of most:|
|A mobile phone is normally less expensive than a laptop.||This mobile phone is the least expensive.|
Spelling of comparative and superlative adjectives
|Deep||Deeper||The deepest||Most adjectives add –er or –est.|
|Safe||Safer||The safest||Add –r or -st|
|Noisy||Noisier||The noisiest||-y changes to i + add –er or -est|
|Big||Bigger||The biggest||One vowel + one consonant double the last consonant, add –er or est.|
|Far||Farther / Further||The farthest / the furthest||Irregular|
Comparative and superlative adjectives
A bit, a little, much, far, a lot
We can’t use very with comparatives but we can use much, far or a lot:
Cheetahs are much/alot/far faster than elephants.
We can use a bit or a little to describe small differences:
Canada is a bit /a little bigger than USA.
We use as + adjective + as to say two things that are the same in some way:
Tara is as tall as john.
Tara is the same height as john.
We use not as + adjective + as to say that one thing is less than another:
Tara is not as tall as john.
Tara is shorter than john.
|Comparative of adverbs|
|Add –er and –est with:||Use more and most with:|
|One-syllable adverbs, e.g. Hard, fast, straight:||Two-syllable adverbs including adverbs ending in –ly:|
|My mum works harder than my dad.||Maria reads the text more quickly then john.|
|These adverbs form irregular comparisons:|
|Well / better / best||Badly / worse / worst|
Abrupt (adj) describes something that is sudden and unexpected.
Clamber (v) to climb up, across or into somewhere with diffficulty, using hanfds and feet.
Commit (v) to do something illegal or wrong.
Compete (v) to try to be more successful than someone or something else.
Consistent (adj) or behaving or happening in a similar way.
Disappoint (v) to make someone feel unhapppy because something was not as good as expected.
Distract (v) to make someone stop giving their full attention to something.
Exhaust (v) to make someone feel very tired.
Fantasise (v) to imagine something that you would like to happen but which is not likely to happen.
Further afield (n) a long distance away.
Heap (n) an untidy pile or mass of things.
Heartbroken (adj) extremely sad, often because a relationship has finished.
High-pitched (adj) describes a noise that is high and sometimes loud and unpleasant.
Irrelevant (adj) not related to what is being discussed or considered and therefore of no importance.
Leisure (n) the time when you are not working or doing other duties.
Make up (v) to invent something, such as an excuse or a story, often in order to deceive.
Mousy (adj) describes hair which is brown and not special or attractive.
On display (n) if something is on display, it is in a place for people to look at.
Pile (n) an amount of a substance in the shape of a small hill or a number of objects on top of each other.
Rush (n) a sudden, quick movement.
Simultaneously (adj) happening or existing at the same time.
Straw (n) dried yellow stems of crops used as food for animals or for them to lie on.
Sum up (n) to describe the important facts about something briefly.
Triviality (n) something that is not important.
Urge (v) to srtongly advise or try to persuade someone to do a perticular thing.
Venture (v) to risk going somewhere or doing something that might be dangerous or unpleasant.