PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS
The present simple is used to describe:
- A permanent state or situation: I live in the town where i was born.
- A fact or something which is always true: The earth revolves around the sun.
- An activity which happens regularly or occasionally: He gets up at six o’clock every day.
The present continuous is used to describe:
- A temporary situation: I am living with my uncle while the builders finish decorating my house.
- An activity happening at the present moment: She is having a shower at the moment.
- An activity in progress but not exactly at the present moment: I am studying three foreign languages, so i am quite busy nowadays.
- A situation which is changing or developing: Lots of people are coming to live here, so the town is growing.
- Things the speaker finds strange or irritating. Complaining with always: You are always using the phone!
- Something which happens frequently with always: My girlfriend is always cooking me special meals.
Verbs which describe states, not actions, are not usually used in the continuous.
These verbs describe:
- Thoughts: believe, know, remember, and think.
- Feelings: like, love, hate, want, need, suppose and prefer.
- Senses: smell, taste, hear, and see.
- Possession: have, belong, own, contain, and include.
- Existence: exist, contain, consist, seem, mean, and matter.
- The verb to be
Some state verbs can be used in the continuous when they describe actions:
I’m thinking about what you said. (I’m considering it.)
She is feeling unhappy. (how she is at the moment.)
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Both the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous talk about something which started in the past and:
- Ether has a result in the present: he has lost his job (i.e. he is unemployed now).
- I have been partying all weekend, so i am feeling very tired now.
- Or is still happening now:
- We have been building our house (and we haven’t finished yet).
Often they are interchangeable. However:
|The present perfect simple||The present perfect continuous|
|Emphasises the result:||Emphasises the activity:|
|I have phoned all my friends and they are coming to the party.||I have been phoning my friends, that’s why haven’t done my homework.|
|Says how much you have done:||Says how long you’ve been doing something:|
|I have cooked three pizzas.||I have been cooking all afternoon.|
|May give the idea that something Is more permanent and may be and may be accompanied by a time expression which indicates this:||May give the idea that something is temporary and may be accompanied by a time expression which indicates this:|
|He has worked in this shop all his life.||I have been working here for the last two months.I have always lived here.|
|Present perfect is used when we want to say how many times something has been repeated:||Present perfect Continuous is used when we want to emphasise the process of over a period of time and that these changes are not finished:|
|I have invited her two or three times but she always says she is busy.||My English has been improving tremendously I started doing my homework!|
Amused (adj) showing that you think something is funny.
Annoy (v) to make someone angry.
Assume (v) to accept something to be true without proof.
Best-selling (adj) selling in large numbers, very popular.
Bored (adj) feeling tired and unhappy because something is not interesting.
Bring up (v) caring for a child until adulthood.
Charming (adj) pleasant and attractive.
Compromise (v) an agreement in which people reduce demands or change opinions in order to agree.
Counter-argument (n) an argument against another idea.
Countless (adj) too many to be counted.
Deal with (v)
1. To talk to or meet someone.
2. To take action to solve a problem.
3. To be about or be the subject of something.
Desire (v) a strong feeling that you want something.
Do someone a favour (v) to do something for someone to help them.
Embarrassed (adj) feeling ashamed or shy.
Energetic (adj) power and ability to be physically and mentally active.
Extend (v) to add something in order to make bigger or longer.
Fanatic (n) someone whose interest in something is extreme.
Firm (n) a company or business.
Fitness (n) the condition of being physically strong and healthy.
Give someone lift (v) to give someone a free ride, usually in a car.
Interrupt (v) to stop a person from speaking for a short period by something you say or do.
Irritate (v) to make someone angry.
Lack of something (n) not having enough of something.
Mature (adj) fully grown or developed.
Mind your own business (v) telling someone in a rude way that you do not want them to ask about private things.
On average (n) an amount calculated by adding the amounts together and then dividing by the number of amounts.
Prioritise (v) to decide which of a group of things are the most important and deal with them first.
Sporty (adj) relating to sports.
The key to something (n) the best way of achieving something.
Upset (v) worried, unhappy or angry.
Vital (adj) extremely important.